Physiology






General

Organisation of the human body and control of internal environment
Variations with age
Function of cells; genes and their expression
Cell membrane characteristics; receptors
Protective mechanisms of the body

Biochemistry

Acid base balance and buffers
Ions e.g. Na + , K+, Ca++ , Cl-, HCO3
Cellular metabolism
Enzymes
Nitric Oxide

Body fluids and their functions and constituents

Fluid and electrolyte requirements
Capillary dynamics and interstitial fluid
Osmolarity: osmolality, partition of fluids across membranes
Lymphatic system
Special fluids especially cerebrospinal fluid: also pleural, pericardial and peritoneal fluids

Haematology and Immunology

Red blood cells: haemoglobin and its variants
Blood groups
Haemostasis and coagulation
White blood cells
The inflammatory response
Immunity and allergy

Muscle

Action potential generation and its transmission
Neuromuscular junction and transmission
Muscle types
Skeletal muscle contraction
Smooth muscle contraction: sphincters
Motor unit

Heart/Circulation

Cardiac muscle contraction
The cardiac cycle: pressure and volume relationships
Rhythmicity of the heart
Regulation of cardiac function; general and cellular
Control of cardiac output (including the Starling relationship)
Fluid challenge and heart failure
Electrocardiogram and arrhythmias
Neurological and humoral control of systemic blood pressures, blood volume and blood flow (at rest and during physiological disturbances e.g. exercise, haemorrhage and Valsalva manoeuvre)
Peripheral circulation: capillaries, vascular endothelium and arteriolar smooth muscle
Characteristics of special circulations including: pulmonary, coronary, cerebral, renal,portal and foetal
Physiology of tissue blood flow

Renal tract

Blood flow and glomerular filtration and plasma clearance
Tubular function and urine formation
Assessment of renal function
Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance
Regulation of acid-base balance
Micturition

Respiration

Physiology of the airway and airway reflexes
Gaseous exchange: O2 and CO2 transport , hypoxia and hyper- and hypocapnia, hyper- and hypobaric pressures
Measurement CO2 production/ oxygen consumption/ respiratory quotient (from CCT II, physics and measurement)
Functions of haemoglobin in oxygen carriage and acid-base equilibrium
Pulmonary ventilation: volumes, flows, dead space
Effect of IPPV on lungs
Mechanics of ventilation: ventilation/perfusion abnormalities
Control of breathing, acute and chronic ventilatory failure, effect of oxygen therapy
Non-respiratory functions of the lungs

Nervous System

Functions of nerve cells: action potentials, conduction and synaptic mechanisms
The brain: functional divisions
Intracranial pressure, intracranial blood flow
Intraocular pressure
cerebrospinal fluid
Maintenance of posture
Autonomic nervous system: functions
Neurological reflexes
Motor function: spinal and peripheral
Senses: receptors, nociception, special senses
Pain: afferent nociceptive pathways, dorsal horn, peripheral and central mechanisms, neuromodulatory systems, supraspinal mechanisms, visceral pain, neuropathic pain, influence of therapy on nociceptive mechanisms
Consciousness and sleep

Liver

Metabolic functions

Gastrointestinal

Gastric function; secretions,
Nausea and vomiting
Gut motility, sphincters and reflex control
G-O reflux – prevalence and sequalae
Digestive functions

Metabolism

Nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals
Metabolic pathways, energy production and enzymes; metabolic rate
Hormonal control of metabolism: regulation of plasma glucose, response to trauma
Physiological alterations in starvation, obesity, exercise and the stress response
Body temperature and its regulation

Endocrinology

Mechanisms of hormonal control: feedback mechanisms, effect on membrane and intracellular receptors
Hypothalamic and pituitary function
Adrenocortical hormones
Adrenal medulla: adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
Pancreas: insulin, glucagon and exocrine function
Thyroid and parathyroid hormones and calcium homeostasis
Endocrinology relating to gynaecology

Obstetric/Paediatric/Elderly/Environmental

Physiological changes associated with normal pregnancy
Physiology of labour
Materno-fetal, fetal and neonatal circulation
Functions of the placenta: placental transfer
Fetus: changes at birth
Principles of neonatal physiology
Effects of prematurity
Development in infancy and childhood
Physiological effects of ageing
Effects of hypobaric conditions (altitude) and hyperbaric conditions on Respiratory Physiology .
Physiology of exercise

CEACCP 2002: FEBRUARY
Andrew J Kitching and Christopher J Edge
Acid-base balance: a review of normal physiology

CEACCP 2006: JUNE
Barrie Phypers and JM Tom Pierce
Lactate physiology in health and diseas

CEACCP 2002: DECEMBER
Duncan Young
Nitric oxide

CEACCP 2004: AUGUST
Ali Al-Khafaji and Andrew R Webb
Fluid resuscitation

CEACCP 2004: AUGUST
S. A. McLellan and T. S. Walsh
Oxygen delivery and haemoglobin

CEACCP 2003: APRIL
NR Webster and HF Galley
Inflammation and immunity

CEACCP 2002: OCTOBER
John M. King and Jennifer M. Hunter
Physiology of the neuromuscular junction

CEACCP 2006: FEBRUARY
Philip M Hopkins
Skeletal muscle physiology

CEACCP 2001: APRIL
Gary H Mills
Respiratory physiology and anaesthesia

CEACCP 2005: DECEMBER
GJ Arthurs and M Sudhakar
Carbon dioxide transport

CEACCP 2004: FEBRUARY
Steven Cruickshank and Nicola Hirschauer
The alveolar gas equation

CEACCP 2003: JUNE
Michael Schupp and Christopher D Hanning
Physiology of sleep

CEACCP 2003: JUNE
Bernhard H Heidemann and John H McClure
Changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy

CEACCP 2002: OCTOBER
David John Williams
Bubble trouble: an introduction to diving medicine

CEACCP 2004: DECEMBER
Deborah Anne Burton, Keith Stokes, and George M Hall
Physiological effects of exercise